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A Forgotten Promise

There were once at least thirty different subspecies of wolf. Most have become extinct. About five subspecies survive today. In England, the last wolves were wiped out by about 1500, a few still live in eastern Europe, India, Germany, Italy,Spain and the Middle East. No one knows how many survive in Russia and China.Most wolves in North America are found in Alaska and Canada and hunters, from whom most of our knowledge of this shy creature comes from, say they are now almost impossible to find...


With eyes closed and head tilted upward, the Wolf sends forth its timeless haunting song. On quiet nights, a single howl can be heard for over 50 square miles. Howling serves as long-distance communication, reuniting pack members that have separated to hunt. These lingering calls also help Wolves to define their territory. Neighboring packs chorus back and forth throughtout the night,announcing their presence and proclaiming their

Wolf Lore

Throughout ancient history the Wolf was admired and respected as a symbol of strength, intelligence and courage. Neolithic artists duplicated its image on cave walls. Shamans sought its power. Even Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, were reportedly nurtured and raised by Wolves. Eventually, this noble legend became the "bloodthirsty savage" of Euro-American lore. Hatred of the Wolf, which sometimes preyed upon livestock, reached hysterical proportions. Fear over economic loss led to the near extermination of the Wolf from western Europe, southern Canada and the United States.

Man's Best Friend

Today, most authorities agree that all dogs are descended from Wolves. Controversy remains over where Wolves were first domesticated. Some experts believe that domestication first occurred in the Near East 10,000 - 12,000 years ago. Impressive in size and strength, Wolves were easily recognized as the largest members of the wild dog family. From nose to tip of tail, "man's best friend" averages 5 feet in length, stands 2-1/2 feet high at the shoulder and weighs up to 155 pounds or more.


During the summer when pups are too young to travel, the pack establishes a small home range of 15 square miles or less. To ensure the safety of the pups, pack life revolves around the den. When a hunting group leaves the den area at sunset, a "babysitter" is always left behind to protect the pups. When the hunting party returns the next morning, they'll feed the pups, then curl up near the den to rest. One faint yip of puppy alarm is enough to wake them.


Springtime arrives on a gust of warm air. The growing and gangly pups are eager to explore. From spring throughout summer, puppyhood is a whirlwind of energetic pouncing, chasing, dashing, eating and exploring. These puppy pasttimes are about more than just play and enjoyment. In subtle ways, the rambunctious siblings are developing their hunting skills, establishing their rank and learning Wolf "language" - each an important behavioral prototype for life as an adult.

Clear Communication

Perhaps the most heartfelt appeal of the Wolf is the expressive nature of its face. Unlike other animals, the Wolf can express "how it feels" through a variety of subtle facial gestures. These gestures are amplified by black and white markings that outline the Wolf's eyes, ears, lips and muzzle. The ability to convey "feelings" like fear or excitement ensures clear communication between pack members and fosters a spirit of cooperation and friendliness.


Like every living creature, the Wolf needs more than merely a chance at survival. Large tracts of wilderness lands, the freedom to roam unharmed and a natural balance of good sources are all essential to the Wolf's survival. And should we not want what is in the best interest of the Wolf? Wild animals and wild places inspire us and sustain our spirits. Perhaps the 21st century will see new conservation initiatives, in the spirit of giving back, rather than taking away.

Hope for the Future

Charles A. Lindbergh once said, "In wilderness I sense the miracle of life, and behind it our scientific accomplishments fade to trivia." Wilderness lands are essential to the survival of the mysterious and elusive Wolf. Leaving behind prior misconceptions and learning to understand the Wolf's role in maintaining a balanced ecosystem, will help to ensure its survival. And so will the understanding that this symbolic creature is synonymous with wilderness. Without one, the other cannot exist.

Thats Were All the Information Came from.
The National Wildlife Federation
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